What are the NFPA 22 requirements for private fire protection water storage tanks?

What are the NFPA 22 requirements for private fire protection water tanks

The NFPA® 22 Standard for Water Tanks for Private Fire Protection sets the minimum requirements for the design, construction, installation and, maintenance for water tanks and their accessories. Chapter four covers the general requirements while the other chapters go into depth by the type of water tank.


General requirements:


1. Capacity and Elevation (4.1): The size and elevation of the tank is determined by the individual property conditions, after due consideration of all of the factors involved.

We offer our standard size of tanks 5,000-Gallons up to a million Gallons, with custom capacities available. 


2. Water Sources (4.2): The water source for filling the tank needs to be adequate and dependable, with allowance for its reliability in the future. If the water supply from a public service main isn’t adequate in quality, quantity or pressure – an alternative water source needs to be provided (as an extra water storage tank on the property).


3. Location of Tanks (4.3): The tanks need to be located so that the tank, as well as the structure, are protected from fire exposure in accordance with NFPA 22 standard chapter through


4. Tank Materials (4.4): Water tank materials are limited to steel, wood, concrete, coated fabrics, and fiberglass-reinforced plastic tanks.

Pioneer Water Tanks are tested and proven to withstand fire immersion. 



5. Workmanship (4.5): Tank manufacturers are expected to comply with these requirements set forth as well as providing structures that are proven reliable under all specified conditions. Manufacturers will replace all defective parts due to faulty materials or workmanship as well as provide careful inspection during fabrication and install.

Pioneer Water Tanks are engineered to NFPA 22 requirements. Read the full report: 


6. Plans (4.6): Contractors will provide stress sheets, plans required, the authority having jurisdiction for approval or for obtaining building permits and licenses. The jurisdiction for approval of layouts will be given complete information covered in NFPA 22 standard chapter

We include a full engineering report, installation and maintenance plans per project for permitting with the local authority. 


7. Tank Contractor Responsibility (4.7): Experienced contractors will handle all of the necessary work with careful workmanship and expert supervision. The manufacturer shall warranty the tank for at least 1 year from the date of completion. Once the tank is complete, the contractor will test the tank for being watertight and notify the authority for official inspection. Contractors will remove and dispose of any trash on-site, in accordance with NFPA 241.

We include our industry-leading warranty, based on a per project basis for commercial applications. Residential water systems include our 20-Year warranty on the tank and tank liner.

Learn more: 


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    8. Attachments to Tank Structures (4.8): If the water tank will be used to support signs, flagpoles, steel stacks, etc, they need to be specifically designed for that purpose. Each tank shell manway will have a confined entry requirement signposted.

    Our full line of commercial accessories is engineered for NFPA and local fire authority requirements.

    9. Lightning Protection (4.9): Water tanks will be installed according to NFPA 780 to prevent lightning damage.


    10. Strength (4.10): The tank material is required to be without defects that affect its strength or service. The workmanship quality of the tank will be so that defects or injuries aren’t produced during the tank manufacturing or installation. The tank structure needs to have the required strength and rigidity set forth.

    Pioneer Water Tanks stands behind our water storage with our warranty as well as providing third-party test results on the quality of materials, manufacturing and end product.


    11. National Standards (4.11): Only tank materials produced and tested in accordance with the requirements of a recognized national standard and within the mechanical (strength), metallurgical, and chemical limitations of one of the material grades specified by NFPA 22 will be permitted.

    12. Loads (4.12): Water tank load requirements


    a. Dead Load: The dead load will be the estimated weight of all permanent construction and fittings.
    b. Live Load: Under normal conditions, the live load will be the weight of all the liquid when it overflows the top of the tank. Provisions will be made for temporary stresses during installation.
    c. Wind Load: Under normal conditions, the wind load or pressure will be assumed to be 30 lb/ft2 (147 kg/m2) on vertical plane surfaces, 18 lb/ft2 (88 kg/m2) on projected areas of cylindrical surfaces, and 15 lb/ft2 (73 kg/m2) on projected areas of conical and double-curved plate surfaces.
    d. Earthquake Load: Water tank structures will comply with the local building code for seismic requirements.
    e. Balcony, Platform, and Ladder Loads: All of the tank structural parts and connections will be designed to withstand loads they will be used for. These specified loads are not be required to be combined with snow loading.
    f. Columns and Struts: All steel columns and struts will be designed in conformance with AWWA D100.
    g. Stress Increases: When wind or earthquake loads are considered in calculating stresses, the maximum permissible increase in the working unit stresses will be one-third, provided the resulting section isn’t less than what’s required for the dead and live loads.
    h. Roof Construction: The tank roof will be designed to withstand the forces anticipated during the installation, inspection, testing, and maintenance.


    Pioneer Water Tanks offers engineering options for seismic areas and industrial applications based on the project location requirements.

    13. Welding (4.13): Welding will be completed in accordance with AWWA D100, NFPA 241, and ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section IX.


    14. Roof Standards (4.14): All tanks need a roof. OSHA-compliant standard railing will be placed around the roof manholes and other accessories that require access.


    Pioneer Water Tanks offers full lines of engineered accessories.

    15. Roof Vent Standards (4.15): Steel rooftops that are essentially airtight need a vent above the maximum water level with a corrosion-resistant screen to prevent contamination.


    Pioneer Water Tanks offers vent options that comply with local authority requirements.

    16. Test Reports (4.16): Test reports and certificates of compliance will be maintained by the vendor and made available for review by the purchaser.


    Pioneer Water Tanks provides our third-party testing results and certifications for NSF 61, NFPA 22 based on the project needs.